The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves , and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances.
The power of the presidency has grown substantially since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
Through the Electoral College , registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term. This is the only federal election in the United States which is not decided by popular vote.
Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term.
In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Donald Trump of New York is the 45th and current president.
He assumed office on January 20, In July , during the American Revolutionary War , the Thirteen Colonies , acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress , declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states , no longer under British rule.
There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, and the exact powers to be given the central government.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, , the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power.
It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens.
The members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator.
Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the later office of President of the United States, it was a largely ceremonial position without much influence.
In , the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs.
They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates , and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest.
Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in , Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September in Annapolis, Maryland , with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms.
When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
When the Constitutional Convention convened in May , the 12 state delegations in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments.
Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature.
The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law.
Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.
Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.
City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional.
The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.
The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.
The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.
According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.
The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.
The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.
The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.
Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.
General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".
Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.
When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.
Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.
Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.
When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.
Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.
However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.
When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.
Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.
Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.
The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.
When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.
Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.
Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.
Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.
The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.
Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.
United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress.
For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.
The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.
Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.
In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.
As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.
If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn. For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.
As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.
Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.
The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.
Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children.
Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.
Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.
Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.
During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.
Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.
One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office".
Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT  and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.
Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".
Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must:. A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.
The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.
Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.
The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.
As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.
Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.
On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.
They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.
The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January. If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.
Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.
For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.
Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.
Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.
Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.
Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.
This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.
Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.
When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.
Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.
Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in ,  as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.
In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.
Four years later, with the U. Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.
Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.
Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.
Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.
Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.
Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.
The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.
Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W. He secretly bought a farmhouse, Oak View or Oak Hill , in a rural upland part of the District of Columbia, in , and remodeled it into a Queen Anne style summer estate.
He sold Oak View upon losing his bid for re-election in Not long thereafter, suburban residential development reached the area, which came to be known as Oak View, and then Cleveland Heights, and eventually Cleveland Park.
Cleveland Hall houses the offices of the college president, vice presidents, and other administrative functions and student services.
Cleveland was a member of the first board of directors of the then Buffalo Normal School. Mount Cleveland , a volcano in Alaska, is also named after him.
President who was filmed. This twelve-cent issue accompanied a thirteen-cent stamp in the same definitive series that depicted his old rival Benjamin Harrison.
Presidents, released, respectively, in and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States presidential election, and Grover Cleveland Presidential campaign, List of federal judges appointed by Grover Cleveland.
Venezuela Crisis of As this was prior to the adoption of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment in , a vacancy in the office of Vice President was not filled until the next ensuing election and inauguration.
American Presidents Year by Year. The Nominating Conventions of — by Stan M. Benninsky survived the war. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved March 27, The American Presidents Series: The 22nd and 24th President, — and — Henry Holt and Company.
Retrieved October 14, Retrieved January 27, National Archives and Records Administration. The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland.
No Negro Domination in the South! Meador, "Lamar to the Court: Retrieved February 18, Retrieved May 30, Retrieved February 22, The vote was to Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History.
University of Chicago Press. Wilson and Tariff Reform: Hedges , "North America", in William L. See also In re Debs.
Letters of Grover Cleveland, — p. Jensen , The Winning of the Midwest: Canfield "The Foreign Rifle: J R Soc Med.
The Surgical Operations on President Cleveland in Trans Stud Coll Physic Philadelphia. Hal Williams, Years of Decision: Retrieved February 23, Retrieved March 4, Nevins makes no mention of these last words.
Discover the Hidden New Jersey. Retrieved August 22, Cleveland Park Historical Society. Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved April 8, Retrieved November 11, Retrieved September 9, Archived from the original on August 1, Retrieved October 17, Scholarly studies Bauer, K.
Jack ; Roberts, Stephen S. Register of Ships of the U. Grover Cleveland — " Presidential Studies Quarterly 15 1: A Study in Character , Paul, An Honest President: Arthur Pue Gorman Lynch, G.
Presidential Elections in the Nineteenth Century: Why Culture and the Economy Both Mattered. Grover Cleveland, the Man and the Statesman: An Authorized Biography Vol.
Blount, the South, and Hawaiian Annexation. From Hayes to McKinley: National Party Politics, — Volume V, — Macmillan, The Tariff Question in the Gilded Age: The Great Debate of History of the United States from the Compromise of Presidents from Hayes Through McKinley: The Making of a President, Cleveland as President Atlantic Monthly March Primary sources Cleveland, Grover.
Campaign Text-book of the National Democratic Party. Presidents from Hayes through McKinley, — The Cabinet Diary of William L.
Wilson, — online edition. Articles related to Grover Cleveland. Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B.
Hayes — James A. Garfield Chester A. Roosevelt — Harry S. Truman — Dwight D. Eisenhower — John F. Kennedy — Lyndon B.
Bush — Bill Clinton — George W. Bush — Barack Obama — Donald Trump —present. Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L.
Book Category List Portal. You should fix the typo in the answers column which says Grover Cleveland served from ", ". Unless that is just how it is displayed, it should be , like it is in the quiz.
Plus, I had to remember not to do the repeats because that would slow me down. Why are people guessing long names like Washington, when in that time you can get Hayes and Taft, 2 for the price of 1.
After at least 50 tries not kidding finally got all A single quiz has never infuriated me so much For some reason it always takes me forever to remember Warren G.
Him and Chester A. Arthur are the two I miss most. The quickest start is bush, johnson, kennedy, roosevelt, harrison, cleveland, adams.
For crying out loud, every time I think of Eisenhower, I type "Ike"! And when I try to correct it, my fingers get tangled up.
How much do you think it would bother Trump to find out that more people guessed Obama than him?In der Book of ra kostenlos downloaden für handy vollzieht er im Vergleich zu seinem Vorgänger eine Kehrtwende, ebenfalls steht er internationalen Abkommen kritisch gegenüber, da er in diesen Nachteile und Einschränkungen für die USA sieht. Vielleicht wegen dieser Erfahrung champions-league Franklin D. Trump bekommt den Druck seiner Basis und von rechten Kommentatoren schon jetzt zu spüren. Die wirtschaftliche Krise von schwächte die gesamte Weltwirtschaft. Da kann Nelles weiter höhnen, er zeigt, dass er genauso wie Pelosi denkt. Dessen Amtszeit endet mit dem ursprünglichen Ende der Amtszeit des Vorgängers.